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Version: 5.4

Test Containers

Test Containers

note

This documentation is for the latest release of the test containers module and is compatible with Kotest 5.0+. For earlier versions see docs here

The testcontainers project provides lightweight, ephemeral instances of common databases, elasticsearch, kafka, Selenium web browsers, or anything else that can run in a Docker container - ideal for use inside tests.

Kotest provides integration with testcontainers through an additional module which provides several extensions - specialized extensions for databases and kafka and general containers support for any supported docker image.

Dependencies

To begin, add the following dependency to your Gradle build file.

io.kotest.extensions:kotest-extensions-testcontainers:${kotest.version}

Note: The group id is different (io.kotest.extensions) from the main kotest dependencies (io.kotest).

For Maven, you will need these dependencies:

<dependency>
<groupId>io.kotest.extensions</groupId>
<artifactId>kotest-extensions-testcontainers</artifactId>
<version>${kotest.version}</version>
<scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Databases

For JDBC compatible databases, Kotest provides the JdbcTestContainerExtension. This provides a pooled javax.sql.DataSource, backed by an instance of HikariCP, which can be configured during setup.

Firstly, create the container.

val mysql = MySQLContainer<Nothing>("mysql:8.0.26").apply {
startupAttempts = 1
withUrlParam("connectionTimeZone", "Z")
withUrlParam("zeroDateTimeBehavior", "convertToNull")
}

Secondly, install the container inside an extension wrapper, providing an optional configuration lambda.

val ds = install(JdbcTestContainerExtension(mysql)) {
poolName = "myconnectionpool"
maximumPoolSize = 8
idleTimeout = 10000
}

If you don't wish to configure the pool, then you can omit the trailing lambda.

Then the datasource can be used in a test. For example, here is a full example of inserting some objects and then retrieving them to test that the insert was successful.

class QueryDatastoreTest : FunSpec({

val mysql = MySQLContainer<Nothing>("mysql:8.0.26").apply {
startupAttempts = 1
withUrlParam("connectionTimeZone", "Z")
withUrlParam("zeroDateTimeBehavior", "convertToNull")
}

val ds = install(JdbcTestContainerExtension(mysql)) {
poolName = "myconnectionpool"
maximumPoolSize = 8
idleTimeout = 10000
}

val datastore = PersonDatastore(ds)

test("insert happy path") {

datastore.insert(Person("sam", "Chicago"))
datastore.insert(Person("jim", "Seattle"))

datastore.findAll().shouldBe(listOf(
Person("sam", "Chicago"),
Person("jim", "Seattle"),
))
}
})
tip

This extension also supports the LifecycleMode flag to control when the container is started and stopped. See #lifecycle

Initializing the Database Container

There are two ways to initialize the database container: via a single init script added to the TestContainer config, or via a list of scripts added to the JdbcTestContainerExtension config lambda.

If adding a single script, via the TestContainer config, simply add the script to the TestContainer's withInitScript config option, like so:

val mysql = MySQLContainer<Nothing>("mysql:8.0.26").apply {
withInitScript("init.sql")
startupAttempts = 1
withUrlParam("connectionTimeZone", "Z")
withUrlParam("zeroDateTimeBehavior", "convertToNull")
}

If you have multiple init scripts or sets of changesets, you can add them as a list to the dbInitScripts extension config lambda, like so:

val ds = install(JdbcTestContainerExtension(mysql, LifecycleMode.Leaf)) {
maximumPoolSize = 8
minimumIdle = 4
dbInitScripts = listOf("/init.sql", "/sql-changesets")
}

The list can contain absolute or relative paths, for files and folders on the filesystem or on the classpath.

The extension will process the list provided in order. If the list item is a folder, it will process all .sql scripts in the folder, sorted lexicographically. These scripts run every time the container is started, so it supports the LifecycleMode flag.

General Containers

Similar to the JdbcTestContainerExtension, this module also provides a TestContainerExtension extension which can wrap any container, not just databases.

We can create the extension using either a docker image name, or a strongly typed container.

For example, using a docker image directly:

val container = install(TestContainerExtension("redis:5.0.3-alpine")) {
startupAttempts = 1
withExposedPorts(6379)
}

And then using a strongly typed container:

val elasticsearch = install(TestContainerExtension(ElasticsearchContainer(ELASTICSEARCH_IMAGE) )) {
withPassword(ELASTICSEARCH_PASSWORD)
}

The strongly typed container is preferred when one is provided by the test containers project, because it gives us access to specific settings - such as the password option in the elasticsearch example above.

However, when a strongly typed container is not available, the former method allows us to spool up any docker image as a general container.

tip

This extension also supports the LifecycleMode flag to control when the container is started and stopped. See #lifecycle

Kafka Containers

For Kafka, this module provides convenient extension methods to create a consumer, producer or admin client from the container.

val kafka = install(TestContainerExtension(KafkaContainer(DockerImageName.parse("confluentinc/cp-kafka:6.2.1")))) {
withEmbeddedZookeeper()
}

Inside the configuration lambda, we can specify options for the Kafka container, such as embedded/external zookeeper, or kafka broker properties through env vars. For example, to enable dynamic topic creation:

val kafka = install(TestContainerExtension(KafkaContainer(DockerImageName.parse("confluentinc/cp-kafka:6.2.1")))) {
withEnv("KAFKA_AUTO_CREATE_TOPICS_ENABLE", "true")
}
Note for Apple Silicon/ARM Users

Kafka only publishes a linux/amd64 version of the container. If you're on an Apple Silicon/ARM architecture computer, you'll need to explicitly specify the platform with the following added to the configuration lambda outlined above:

withCreateContainerCmdModifier { it.withPlatform("linux/amd64") }

Once we have the container installed, we can create a client using the following methods:

  • container.createProducer()
  • container.createStringStringProducer()
  • container.createConsumer()
  • container.createStringStringConsumer()
  • container.createAdminClient()

Each of these accepts an optional configuration lambda to enable setting values on the properties object that is used to create the clients.

For example, in this test, we produce and consume a message from the same topic, and we use the configuration lambda to set max poll to 1.

class KafkaTestContainerExtensionTest : FunSpec() {
init {

val kafka = install(TestContainerExtension(KafkaContainer(DockerImageName.parse("confluentinc/cp-kafka:6.2.1")))) {
withEmbeddedZookeeper()
}

test("should send/receive message") {

val producer = kafka.createStringStringProducer()
producer.send(ProducerRecord("foo", null, "bubble bobble"))
producer.close()

val consumer = kafka.createStringStringConsumer {
this[ConsumerConfig.MAX_POLL_RECORDS_CONFIG] = 1
}

consumer.subscribe(listOf("foo"))
val records = consumer.poll(Duration.ofSeconds(100))
records.shouldHaveSize(1)
}
}
}
note

When creating a consumer, the consumer group is set to a random uuid. To change this, provide a configuration lambda and specify your own group consumer group id.

Lifecycle

By default, the lifecycle of a container is per spec - so it will be started at the install command, and shutdown as the spec is completed. This can be changed to start/stop per test, per leaf test, or per root test.

To do this, pass in a LifecycleMode parameter to the TestContainerExtension or JdbcTestContainerExtension.

For example:

val ds = install(JdbcTestContainerExtension(mysql, LifecycleMode.Root)) {
poolName = "myconnectionpool"
maximumPoolSize = 8
idleTimeout = 10000
}

If you change the lifecycle mode from Spec then the container will not be started in the constructor, and so any operations that act on the container must be placed inside the test scopes.

Startables

This module also provides extension methodsscope which let you convert any Startable such as a DockerContainer into a kotest TestListener, which you can register with Kotest and then Kotest will manage the lifecycle of that container for you.

For example:

import io.kotest.core.spec.style.FunSpec
import io.kotest.extensions.testcontainers.perTest
import org.testcontainers.containers.GenericContainer

class DatabaseRepositoryTest : FunSpec({
val redisContainer = GenericContainer<Nothing>("redis:5.0.3-alpine")
listener(redisContainer.perTest()) //converts container to listener and registering it with Kotest.

test("some test which assume to have redis container running") {
//
}
})

In above example, the perTest() extension method converts the container into a TestListener, which starts the redis container before each test and stops it after test. Similarly if you want to reuse the container for all tests in a single spec class you can use perSpec() extension method, which converts the container into a TestListener which starts the container before running any test in the spec, and stops it after all tests, thus a single container is used by all tests in spec class.